It set the standards for medicine in Medieval Europe and the Islamic world and was used as a standard medical textbook through the 18th century in Medicine list with price pdf. Canon” used in the sense of “law”.
Islamic medicine from its beginnings. The result was a “clear and ordered “summa” of all the medical knowledge of Ibn Sīnā’s time”. It served as a more concise reference in contrast to Galen’s twenty volumes of medical corpus. List of medical substances, arranged alphabetically, following an essay on their general properties. Diagnosis and treatment of conditions covering multiple body parts or the entire body.
The book explains the causes of health and disease. Avicenna believed that the human body cannot be restored to health unless the causes of both health and disease are determined. In other words, it is the art whereby health is concerned and the art by which it is restored after being lost. Avicenna begins part one by dividing theoretical medicine and medical practice. Avicenna says that this cause is the human subject itself, the “members or the breath” or “the humours” indirectly. The efficient cause is broken up into two categories: The first is “Extrinsic”, or the sources external to the human body such as air or the region we live in. The second efficient cause is the “Intrinsic”, or the internal sources such as our sleep and “its opposite-the waking state”, the “different periods of life”, habits, and race.
The final cause is given as “the actions or functions”. Avicenna makes it clear that he distinguishes between the “simple” element, not mixed with anything else, and what we actually experience as water or air, such as the sea or the atmosphere. The elements we experience are mixed with small amounts of other elements and are therefore not the pure elemental substances. The Earth is at rest, and other things tend towards it because of its intrinsic weight. It is cold and dry. Water is described as being exterior to the sphere of the Earth and interior to the sphere of the Air, because of its relative density. It is cold and moist.
The position of Air above Water and beneath Fire is “due to its relative lightness”. It is “hot and moist”, and its effect is to “rarefy” and make things “softer”. Fire is higher than the other elements, “for it reaches to the world of the heavens”. The temperaments are reported to be the interaction between the four different element’s qualities, such as the conflict between dryness, wetness, cold, and hot. Avicenna suggests that these qualities battle between each other until an equilibrium state is reached and this state is known as the temperaments. Canon describes humans as having eight different “varieties of equipoise”, or differing temperaments.
In relation to beings other than men and in relation to the individual himself. The heart, for example, is hot and must be in equilibrium of other cold parts of the body such as the brain. When this equilibrium between these members are achieved, the person is considered to be in “ideal equability”. This third gauge for temperament assumes that each race has their own equilibrium. As an example he says, “The Hindus, in health, have a different equability to the Slaves, and so on. Avicenna explains that the differing climates contribute to differing temperaments among the races.
Although Avicenna had listed the fifth mode “as compared to another person”, he seems to contradict that statement by explaining that every individual has a temperament that is unique to themselves and unlike anyone else. Organs are nowhere near ideal in temperament, but skin comes the closest. Avicenna says that the hand, especially the palm and the tip of the index finger, is the most sensitive of all and attuned to tactile contact. Medicine is described as “hot” or “cold”, not based upon its actual temperature but with regard to how it relates to the temperament of the human body.
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Avicenna separates these into two categories, which are fairly self explainable within the context of what he had already defined as the temperaments. The compound intemperaments are where two things are wrong with the temperament, i. There are only four because something cannot be simultaneously hotter and colder or drier and moister. The four simple temperaments and four compound intemperaments can each be divided into “Those apart from any material substance” and “Those in which some material substance is concerned”, for a total of sixteen intemperaments. Examples of the sixteen intemperaments are provided in the “third and fourth volumes. Each member of the body is described to be given each its individual temperament, each with its own degree of heat and moisture. Avicenna lists members of the body in “order of degree of Heat”, from hottest to coldest.
Then a list is given of coldest members to hottest. Then a list is given in order of moisture. Avicenna says that the third period shows signs of decline in vigor and some decline in intellectual power. In the fourth period, both vigor and intelligence decline.